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100 Plus Educational Strategies to Teach Children

Types of Teachers

According to Jawanza Kunjufu, there are six types of teachers: custodians, referral agents, missionaries, instructors, master teacher, coaches. All that types will be elaborated as follows:

1. Custodians

Custodians often tell students, “I have mine and you have yours to get.” They tell colleagues, “I have one year, four months, three weeks, two days, and I’m out of here.” These teachers graduated 30 years ago and are using the same lesson plans 30 years later.

2. Referral Agents

Referral Agents are always seeking ways to reduce the student teacher ratio. They’ve found that the most effective method is referring students to special education and suspension. Twenty percent of teachers make 80 percent of the referrals to special education.

3. Missionaries

Missionaries usually trained in elite schools. They’re not interested in other strategies because they believe their Eurocentric curriculum. The synonym for culture is lifestyle. Everyone has a culture, but arrogant people assume that if you don’t have their culture, you are deprived. Missionaries don’t last long in the public school system. Most will teach one to five years.

4. Instructors

Instructors have opinion that they teach subjects, not children. They sincerely believe they teach algebra and English. There can be no significant learning until they first establish a significant relationship. Instructors do not value the role of self-esteem, motivation, and values in the learning process. They are solely concerned about delivering their subject matter. Instructors seem to be concentrated at the high school level. Instructors do not seem interested in my strategies because their one goal is to deliver content. That there are students on the receiving end of their lectures doesn’t seem to concern them at all. Thus, they are easily frustrated when, for example, they attempt to teach ninth grade algebra to students who have not mastered their multiplication tables or Shakespeare to students who are not reading at grade level.

5. Master Teachers

Master Teachers understand subject matter as well as the variety of student learning styles. They have quote like “You cannot teach the way you want to teach; you must teach the way children learn”. In the first week of school, master teachers ascertain which students are left and right brain learners. This information will dictate what percentage of their lesson plan will be left and right brain. They appreciate the role of history, culture, values, and social issues in learning. They have mastered the art of adapting their pedagogy to a variety of student learning styles. They are equally interested in strategies and solutions.

6. Coaches

Like Instructors, Coaches understand subject matter. Like Teachers, they have mastered congruence between pedagogy and learning styles. Most importantly, they understand that you cannot teach a child you do not respect, love, or understand. Coaches understand that there can be no significant learning until a significant relationship is established first. The ability to bond with students is one of their greatest skills.


Kunjufu, Jawanza. 2008. 100 Plus Educational Strategies to Teach Children of Color. United State: African American Images.


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